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Field Of Study

**Formal Science** is the study of formal language disciplines such as Logic, Mathematics, Statistics, Theoretical Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Theory, Game Theory, Systems Theory, Decision Theory, and Theoretical Linguistics. The Formal Sciences are linguistic tools for describing abstract structures described by symbolic systems. The Formal Sciences are language tools concerned with characterizing abstract structures expressed by symbolic systems, whereas the Natural Sciences and Social Sciences utilize empirical approaches to characterize physical and social systems, respectively. Natural Science, Social Science, and actuarial science all benefit from Formal Sciences since they provide information about the structures used to represent the physical and contemporary world, as well as the conclusions that can be reached from them. Mathematics is a formal science, also known as the science of numbers. Computer Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Information Science, and Systems Science are examples of Formal Science branches.

Formal Sciences predate the scientific method, with the first mathematical books originating from 1800 BC (Babylonian mathematics), 1600 BC (Egyptian mathematics), and 1000 BC (Indian mathematics). From then on, other cultures such as Greek, Arab, and Persian made significant contributions to mathematics, while the Chinese and Japanese created their own mathematical legacy independent of more distant nations.

Since a lot of other Formal Science disciplines rely heavily on Mathematics, they did not exist until mathematics had progressed to an advanced degree. The earliest studies of probability theory were begun by Pierre de Fermat and Blaise Pascal (1654), as well as Christiaan Huygens (1657). Gauss and Laplace created the mathematical theory of statistics in the early 1800s, which also described how statistics are used in insurance and government accounting. In the early twentieth century, mathematical statistics was recognized as a mathematical field.

The advent of new Mathematical Sciences and Engineering fields such as Operations Research and Systems Engineering widened and enhanced Mathematics in the mid-twentieth century. Basic research in Electrical Engineering aided these areas, as did the development of electrical computing, which boosted information theory, numerical analysis (scientific computing), and Theoretical Computer Science. The field of Mathematical Logic, which includes the theory of computation, improves Theoretical Computer Science as well.