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  Natural Sciences

Natural Science is a branch of science that focuses on describing, understanding and predicting natural phenomena, based on empirical data from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms like peer review and repeatability of results are used to try to ensure that scientific advances are valid.

The Natural Sciences can be divided into two main branches: the Life Sciences and the Physical Sciences. The Life Sciences are also known as Biology, and the Physical Sciences are divided into branches: Physics, Chemistry, Earth Sciences and Astronomy. These branches of Natural Science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields). As empirical sciences, Natural Sciences use tools from the Formal Sciences, such as Mathematics and Logic, converting information about nature into measurements that can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".

Modern Natural Science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy, usually traced to Taoists traditions in Asia and the Occident to ancient Greece. Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using more mathematical and experimental approaches methodically. Yet philosophical perspectives, conjectures and assumptions, often neglected, remain necessary in the Natural Sciences. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.

Some scholars trace the origins of Natural Science as far back as pre-literate human societies, where understanding the natural world was necessary for survival. People observed and built up knowledge about the behaviour of animals and the usefulness of plants as food and medicine, which was passed down from generation to generation. These primitive understandings gave way to more formalized inquiry around 3500 to 3000 BC in the Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian cultures, which produced the first known written evidence of natural philosophy, the precursor of Natural Science. While the writings show an interest in Astronomy, Mathematics, and other aspects of the physical world, the ultimate aim of inquiry about nature's workings was in all cases religious or mythological, not scientific.

List of Subjects:

  • Aerobiology
  • Anatomy
  • Comparative Anatomy
  • Human Anatomy
  • Biophysics
  • Biotechnology
  • Botany
  • Ethnobotany
  • Phycology
  • Cell Biology
  • Chronobiology
  • Cryobiology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Ecology
  • Agroecology
  • Ethnoecology
  • Plant Ecology
  • Endocrinology
  • Epigenetics
  • Ethnobiology
  • Anthrozoology
  • Evolutionary Biology
  • Genetics
  • Behavioral Genetics
  • Molecular Genetics
  • Population Genetics
  • Histology
  • Human Biology
  • Immunology
  • Limnology
  • Linnaean Taxonomy
  • Marine Biology
  • Mathematical Biology
  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Mycology
  • Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience
  • Nutrition
  • Paleobiology
  • Parasitology
  • Pathology
  • Anatomical Pathology
  • Clinical Pathology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Forensic Pathology
  • Hematopathology
  • Histopathology
  • Molecular Pathology
  • Surgical Pathology
  • Physiology
  • Kinesiology
  • Structural Biology
  • Systematics (Taxonomy)
  • Systems Biology
  • Virology
  • Xenobiology
  • Zoology
  • Biodesign
  • List of Subjects:

  • Agrochemistry
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Astrochemistry
  • Atmospheric Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Chemical Biology
  • Cheminformatics
  • Computational Chemistry
  • Cosmochemistry
  • Electrochemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Femtochemistry
  • Flow Chemistry
  • Green Chemistry
  • Histochemistry
  • Hydrogenation
  • Immunochemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Marine Chemistry
  • Mathematical Chemistry
  • Mechanochemistry
  • Medicinal Chemistry
  • Molecular Mechanics
  • Natural Product Chemistry
  • Neurochemistry
  • Oenology
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Organometallic Chemistry
  • Petrochemistry
  • Pharmacology
  • Photochemistry
  • Physical Chemistry
  • Physical Organic Chemistry
  • Phytochemistry
  • Polymer Chemistry
  • Quantum Chemistry
  • Radiochemistry
  • Solid-State Chemistry
  • Sonochemistry
  • Supramolecular Chemistry
  • Surface Chemistry
  • Synthetic Chemistry
  • Theoretical Chemistry
  • Thermochemistry
  • Applied Chemistry
  • List of Subjects:

  • Physical Geography
  • Biogeography
  • Coastal Geography
  • Emergency Management
  • Environmental Geography
  • Geobiology
  • Geochemistry
  • Geology
  • Geomatics
  • Geomorphology
  • Geophysics
  • Glaciology
  • Hydrology
  • Landscape Ecology
  • Lithology
  • Meteorology
  • Mineralogy
  • Oceanography
  • Palaeogeography
  • Paleontology
  • Petrology
  • Quaternary Science
  • Soil Geography
  • Cartography
  • Celestial Cartography
  • Planetary Cartography
  • Topography
  • Astrobiology
  • Astronomy
  • Astrophysics
  • Cosmology
  • Interstellar Medium
  • Numerical Simulations
  • Stellar Astrophysics
  • Planetary Science
  • Environmental Science
  • Edaphology
  • Gemology
  • Geodesy
  • List of Subjects:

  • Acoustics
  • Aerodynamics
  • Applied Physics
  • Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics
  • Computational Physics
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Cryogenics
  • Electricity
  • Electromagnetism
  • Elementary Particle Physics
  • Experimental Physics
  • Fluid Dynamics
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Mechanics
  • Medical Physics
  • Molecular Physics
  • Newtonian Dynamics
  • Nuclear Physics
  • Optics
  • Plasma Physics
  • Quantum Physics
  • Solid Mechanics
  • Solid State Physics
  • Statistical Mechanics
  • Theoretical Physics
  • Thermal Physics
  • Thermodynamics
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